What is Sandplay Therapy?

沙遊治療是什麼?  – 周淑儀女士

人的內心情感複雜多變; 即使在快樂的一剎那,心底裡同時也存在著些微的憂愁。 在相聚的時刻,心中有一點點將要分離的愁緒; 在成功的日子,心中浮現對失敗的恐懼。正因為我們活在兩極的情感之間,往往非語言或筆墨可以形容。

沙 遊治療就是讓我們透過一盤細沙,一瓶清水,各式各樣的小物件,使我們可以在一個自由與及受保護的空間,自由創造與表達自己的不同面貌。我們會在有意無意之 間,將內在複雜的情感投射在沙盤之中。而治療師的積極投入而不刻意引導的精神,以及帶著好奇去瞭解當事人的沙遊作品,就這樣可使我們的意識和潛意識起了微 妙轉變。

在沙遊治療中的創作,包括說話的內容、沙箱作品、繪畫作品,甚至當時人不想做出任何成品,只是撥弄沙子,都是沙遊作品,需詳細紀 錄,進行分析。對沙箱作品的了解,主要依照當時人的說明,但有時沙遊作品是潛意識裡能量的湧現,未必能夠清楚說明,此時治療師 需要從當時人的現實生活或生命中的事件去探索,也可借助象徵意義的解析或繪 畫治療對作品的解析。

沙遊治療的理論取向,是以容格 (C.G.Jung)學派為基礎.在1980年,瑞士兒童心理分析家Dora Kaff ,將Margaret Lowenfeld (1979)的「世界技術」(World technique)與榮格(Jung)理論結合以成的一種心理治療方法。沙遊治療的過程中,當時人或會呈現探索、表達、自我滋養、而達到意識和潛意 識的互相交流.如當時人自發地在沙箱中一次又一次的擺設,用物件、沙子、水來呈現自己的問題,釋放心中的壓力,經由治療師的同在及理解沙箱中的圖像,而產 生心靈中的改變,更有能力去面對生活的種種問題。

Many clients, when they first encountered sand trays and sand, said immediately that it has been years since they last played with sand on the beach. Sand, then, seems to be something that has become unfamiliar to them. We live in a modern era, spending most of our time among artificial concret blocks. Whether we work, study, sleep or eat, the things we get in touch with most are plastic, metal, glass, concrete or wood. Sand seemed to be the last thing we expect to see in daily life. So, why sand?

Sand is one of the most basic elements making up the body of the earth, nurturing different life forms from forest, desert to the bottom of the sea. Modern citizens who seldom get in touch with it are strangers to its potency. Sand connects us not only with mother earth, nature, but our psyche as well. Similar to dreams or drawings, sand helps to manifest our psyche. Unlike conventional verbal therapy that involves lots of talking and sharing between client and therapist, sandplay therapy provides a free and protected space to search for and communicate with our own inner self. The sand trays with different miniatures and natural elements (water, pieces of wood, stones etc., things you can find in nature) in a small, secure room with a trusted therapist who is able to hold whatever comes out from one’s psyche, one can then start the journey. In the sand tray one can make anything one wishes with one’s own hands.

Dora Kalff, the founder of sandplay therapy, discovered this wonderful pathway by combining the “World Technique” of Margaret Lowenfeld, Jungian psychology, Winnicott’s transitional objects and eastern philosophy (Chou tun yi’s “周敦頤” diagram to explain the supreme ultimate) (Kalff, 2003). Different images of the sand tray, symbols from the sand and the miniatures, emotions and movements from the clients are what the therapist needs to hold. Through inner healing and development in the sandplay journey, the early injuries or wounds of the psyche which manifested themselves in various symptoms physically or psychologically will find balance once again in the client. The unconscious materials that emerge may sometimes be so intolerable and shocking for the clients that the ability of the therapist to hold all these alongside with a secure working relationship built between them are essential for sandplay therapy to proceed.

I remembered the first time when I began my own journey. While my hands were soaked in the wet sand, I closed my eyes and it seemed to me that my attachment to the collective world was temporarily gone. The overwhelming amount of information every day from television, radio, phone calls, endless emails, friends and colleagues disappeared from my mind. I felt as if I was in my own space or womb, exploring my inner world through the sand with different miniatures in it. It was not important or essential any more for me to understand what I have made in the tray. It was part of me, illustrating my inner world to me. Every time when I left the room I knew I would again be bombarded in the outer world by people, information and work. But I know, my tenemos is always available there for me to visit again.

Reference:
Kalff, Dora M. 2003. Sandplay: A psychotherapeutic approach to the psyche. Temenos Press (eds.), Cloverdale, CA.

Prepared by : Kwok  Kar Kin, George in September 2011

什麼是沙遊治療? – 郭嘉健先生

很多首次接觸沙遊治療的受助者都會表示他們已經多年沒有在沙灘上玩沙,對他們來說,這是一件陌生的事。現代化的生活,令我們長時間接觸人工製造的具體實物,不論在工作、在學習、在吃喝或在睡覺時,我們都會接觸由塑膠、金屬、玻璃、混凝土或木材所造的東西,沙似乎是最後才出現於現代人的眼前。那麼,為什麼要以沙作為治療工具?

沙是地球上各物種的基本元素,孕育著森林裏、沙漠中、以致海洋下的生命。現代人很少接觸它,對它的潛在能力感到陌生,原來泥沙可以把我們跟大地、大自然和自己的內心世界連繫起來,就像發夢或繪畫可以幫助流露內心的渴想一樣。傳統的心理治療側重受助者跟治療師的對話和分享,而沙遊治療可以讓人們在一個無拘無束和安全的空間下尋索自我,跟內心深處的我好好溝通。在沙池中出現的微型玩具和自然元素(如水、木材、石頭等)、加上細小而安全的房間,令治療師能夠幫助受助者展開探索之旅,接觸一己的內心世界。在沙池中,人們可以倚靠雙手,創造任何夢想。

沙遊治療的鼻祖Dora Kalff,糅合了容格心理學大師Margaret Lowenfeld 的共同技巧、Winnicott的過渡物現象和東方哲學家周敦頤的太極圖象發展出這個奇妙的治療模式(Kalff, 2003)。這種治療模式,需要治療師幫助受助者深入接觸一己的內心世界,包括從沙池而來的各種影像、從沙和微型玩具中創造出來的符號、以及各種衍生出來的情緒和行為。沙遊的旅程和療癒的經歷,令受助者內心深處的傷痛、因傷痛而出現的身體毛病和心理問題取得較佳平衡。這些潛藏於內心深處的東西一旦被受助者覺察得到,他們可能感到震驚和難以接受,治療師能否跟受助者建立穩固的工作關係,一起接觸這些複雜的情緒,至為重要。

首次的沙遊之旅,令我難以忘懷。猶記得當時闔上雙眼,雙手浸浴於濕漉漉的泥沙之中,似乎整個人不需要再依附著集體世界,電視、收音機、電話、電郵、朋友、同事和排山倒海的資訊都可以從腦海中消失得無影無踪,我可以全然地投入屬於自己的空間或彷彿回歸到母親的懷抱中,遊走於不同的微型玩具,自由奔放地接觸自己的內心深處,別人是否理解我在沙池中的所作所為,毫不重要。從此,雖然每趟離開房間時,我都意識到自己將會被俗世間的各種人與事煩擾,但我知道,那種渾然忘我的境界將會重臨,沙遊的樂趣已成為我的一部份。

參考資料:
Kalff, Dora M. 2003. 沙遊:以心理治療的方式探索內心世界。 Temenos Press (eds.), Cloverdale, CA.

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